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Geomechanics & Advanced Acoustics Suite
The Integrated Stress Analysis, Integrated Fracture Analysis, Shale Anisotropy Analysis and Acoustic Anisotropy Utilities provide the necessary workflows to characterize rock formations for stress, fractures and layering. The suite takes advantage of dipole sonic anisotropy, Stoneley shear and image data to provide a comprehensive analysis for downstream applications.
Shale Anisotropy Analysis workflow
The Shale Anisotropy Analysis plugin uses prior information, compressional and dipole fast/slow shear slowness, and structural geometry information to obtain the five independent elastic properties of transversely isotropic formations such as shales. The inversion results include uncertainty analysis and come in three notations, including Thomsen notation, for use in downstream applications.
Stress & mechanical properties for hydraulic fracture
A pilot well evaluation of anisotropic mechanical properties and stress is shown. The anisotropic mechanical properties are used with the pore pressure and overburden stress to compute a horizontal stress profile.
Verticalization of deviated slowness logs
Continuous Thomsen parameters and verticalization of deviated slowness logs, acquired by a Marcellus operator (West Virginia). At large well deviations, the verticalized logs are observed to be up to 500 m/s faster than the corresponding input logs. In the bottom shale, Thomsen's epsilon reads up to 0.4 while Thomsen's delta approaches 0.1.
Determine the cause of sonic anisotropy
Discrimination of the cause of sonic anisotropy in a naturally fractured reservoir (Wyoming, U.S.). A large amount of shear wave anisotropy was observed throughout the clean sand zones. The fractures data interpreted from the image log are modeled and compared to the sonic anisotropy. Bedding and stress data can also be used in the forward model for determining the mechanism of shear anisotropy.
Integrated Stress Analysis Workflow
The Integrated Stress Analysis plugin uses induced fractures and breakouts from borehole images, dipole anisotropy and radial profiling from sonic as well as mini-frac and pressure information from formation testing tools to determine stress direction, magnitudes and regime. The results can then be consumed in downstream applications for drilling, completions and field integrity.
Extract sonic stress anisotropy
The Fast Shear Azimuth (FSA) is an output of sonic anisotropy processing from all dipole sonic tools. The direction of the FSA can be related to the direction of the maximum horizontal stress in vertical wellbores, or the maximum subsidiary stress in deviated wellbores. Stress-induced anisotropy can be identified form the cross-over nature in the slowness dispersion analysis.
Borehole Shape Analysis
This workstep analyzes borehole electrical and ultrasonic images and oriented multi-arm caliper data to automatically identify borehole stress indicators such as breakouts and drilling induced fractures. It also provides functionality for users to manually pick and confirm the identified stress indicators.
Horizontal stress magnitudes and direction
Horizontal stress magnitudes and direction can be determined using advance acoustic outputs from the Sonic Scanner in vertical and deviated wells. Key inputs are shear slownesses, shear radial profiles, cross-over indicator, and dipole dispersion curves. Field inputs such as overburden stress, pore pressure, friction angle, Biot coefficient, and mud density are also required.
Geomechanics & Advanced Acoustics Suite.